Tennis, swimming and the aging rotator cuff
As with other areas of referred pain, the first question to be answered is whether the pain in the shoulder is coming from the neck or cervical spine structures.
The shoulder joint is a complex structure, prone to not only degeneration (osteoarthritis of the shoulder) but also to soft tissues repetitive motion injuries, age-related or due to poor technique in playing sports.
Traditionally, shoulder pain has been addressed with injections of corticosteroids and ultimately surgery. However, more modern techniques target the shoulder structures with regenerative injections (proliferative therapy, platelet-rich plasma, stem cell injections). In most cases, these techniques help avoid surgery and allow restoration of function and return to sports activities in a natural, individualized way.